Search within This 18.4.6.040 Street Design Standards This section is included in your selections. A. Purpose, Intent, and Background. 1. Purpose. This section contains standards for street connectivity and design as well as cross sections for street improvements. The standards are intended to provide multiple transportation options, focus on a safe environment for all users, design streets as public spaces, and enhance the livability of neighborhoods, consistent with the Comprehensive Plan. 2. Intent. Ashland’s streets are some of the most important public spaces in the community. The Street Design Standards outline the art and science of developing healthy, livable streets, and are intended to illustrate current standards for planning and designing the streets of Ashland. The standards are to be used in the development of new streets, and reconstruction of existing streets or portions thereof (i.e. improving a paved local street by adding sidewalks). The standards area also intended as a resource for use by home builders, developers, and community members in the pursuit of quality development practices. A series of street types is offered including the multi-use path, alley, neighborhood street, commercial neighborhood street, neighborhood collector, commercial neighborhood collector, avenue, and boulevard. Street cross sections provide a model for building streets the traditional way. Variations can be made from these basic types to fit the particular site and situation. However, the measurements of each street component must be used to create and maintain the desired low-speed environment where people feel comfortable and the maximum number of people walk, bicycle and use transit. All streets in Ashland shall be designed using the following assumptions. •All designs encourage pedestrian and bicycle travel. •Neighborhood streets (Neighborhood Collectors and Neighborhood Streets) are designed for 20 mile-per-hour (mph). •All new streets and alleys are paved. •All streets have standard vertical, non-mountable curbs. •Gutter widths are included as part of the curb-to-curb street width. •New avenues and boulevards have bicycle lanes. •Parkrow and sidewalk widths do not include the curb. •Sidewalks are shaded by trees for pedestrian comfort. •All streets have parkrows and sidewalks on both sides. In certain situations where the physical features of the land create severe constraints, or natural features should be preserved, exceptions may be made. Exceptions could result in construction of meandering sidewalks, sidewalks on only one side of the street, or curbside sidewalk segments instead of setback walks. Exceptions should be allowed when physical conditions exist that preclude development of a public street, or components of the street. Such conditions may include, but are not limited to, topography, wetlands, mature trees, creeks, drainages, rock outcroppings, and limited right-of-way when improving streets through a local improvement district (LID). •Parkrows and medians are usually landscaped. •Garages are set back from the sidewalk so parked vehicles are clear of sidewalks. •Building set backs and heights create a sense of enclosure. 3. Background. The City updated the street design standards to reflect traditional street design principles and implement the goals and policies of the Transportation Element of the Comprehensive Plan. The Street Design Standards were adopted by the City Council on February 2, 1999 (Ordinance No. 2836), and amended on July 1, 2008 (Ordinance No. 2959). B. Applicability. The following standards apply to all street improvements, including new streets, alleys and pathways, and the extension or widening of existing streets. The street connectivity and design standards are part of the Ashland Land Use Ordinance and are approval standards that will be used in land use decisions and for street construction projects. C. General Requirements. New and reconstructed streets, alleys, and pathways shall conform to the following requirements. 1. Dedicated Public Streets Required. All streets serving four units or greater, and which are in an R-1, RR and WR zone, must be dedicated to the public and shall be developed to the Street Standards of this section. 2. Location. Locate transportation facilities, such as streets, pedestrian and bicycle ways, and transit facilities, within public rights-of-way, except that the approval authority may approve transportation facilities outside a public right-of-way where a public access easement is provided. 3. Dead End Streets. No dead end street shall exceed 500 feet in length, not including the turnaround. Dead end roads must terminate in an improved turnaround as illustrated in Figure 18.4.6.040.G.5. 4. Obstructed Streets. Creating an obstructed street is prohibited. 5. Street Grade. Street grades measured at the street centerline for dedicated streets and flag drives shall be as follows. a. Street and private drive grades in developments subject to chapter 18.3.9 Performance Standards Option Overlay shall not exceed a maximum grade of 15 percent. b. Street and private drive grades in developments subject to chapter 18.3.9 Performance Standards Option Overlay shall not exceed a maximum grade of 15 percent. No variance may be granted to this section for public streets. Variances may be granted for private drives for grades in excess of 15 percent but not greater than 18 percent for no more than 200 feet subject to chapter 18.5.5 Variances. D. Required Street Layout and Design Principles. Streets are important elements of the form, character, and identity of Ashland and its neighborhoods. Traditional neighborhood design is used as the basis for the Street Design Standards because it creates street that provide multiple transportation options, focuses on a safe environment for all users, treats streets as public spaces, and enhances the livability of the neighborhoods. As a result, street layout and design are an integral part of neighborhood design. Therefore, the following principles shall be used for the planning and designing of streets. 1. Specificity. Design streets individually and molded to the particular situation at hand by a multi-disciplinary team. Planners, engineers, architects, emergency responders, utility providers, landscape architects, as well as the developer and neighborhood or homeowners association groups should be included in street design teams. The following conditions (existing and projected) must be considered in order to design each street. a. The volume of pedestrian, bicycle, and motor vehicle traffic each day and at peak hours. b. The speeds of motor vehicles, bicycles, and pedestrians along the street as designed or redesigned. c. The mix of pedestrian, bicycle, and motor vehicle traffic (including percentage of large trucks). d. The zoning and surrounding future land uses (assess pedestrian, bicycle, and transit generators and attractors such as schools, shopping areas, community buildings, parks, churches, and gathering places). e. The natural features of the area such as slope, mature trees, creeks, wetlands, etc. f. The adjacent building setbacks with respect to the street. g. Whether adjacent properties will be serviced directly from the street, or from alleys. h. The function of the street and relation to the surrounding street network. 2. Emergency Vehicles. Design streets to efficiently and safely accommodate emergency fire and medical services vehicles. The effects of decisions concerning turning radii and paths must be made with a full understanding of the implications of such decisions on the other users of the street. 3. Shared Street Space. On neighborhood streets with relatively low average daily traffic (ADT), use the curb-to-curb area on neighborhood streets as a shared space by moving automobiles, parked cars, and bicycles. 4. Human Scale. Design streets at the human scale. Human scale is the relationship between the dimensions of the human body and the proportion of the spaces that people use. Those areas that provide visually interesting details, create opportunities for interactions, and feel comfortable to pedestrians moving at slow travel speed are designed at a human scale. 5. Streetscape. Consider the entire area from building face to building face, or the streetscape in street design. The streetscape begins at the front of a vertical element, such as a building or fence on one side of a street and runs to the front of a building on the other side of the street. It is a three dimensional area running the length of the street. 6. Connectivity. Streets should be interconnected. Cul-de-sacs and other dead-end streets are not typical of grid street networks except in areas where topographic, wetland, and other physical features preclude connection. Where extreme conditions prevent a street connection, a continuous nonautomotive connection in the form of a multi-use path or trail shall be provided. See subsection 18.4.6.040.E Connectivity Standards. 7. Multiple Routes. Layout streets using a grid or modified grid network pattern to provide multiple routes. See subsection 18.4.6.040.E Connectivity Standards. 8. Pedestrians, Bicyclists, and Public Transportation Users. Pedestrians, bicyclists, and bus riders are considered primary users of all streets. Design streets to meet the needs of pedestrians and bicyclists, thus encouraging walking, bicycling, and riding the bus as transportation modes. Integrate pedestrian, bicycle, and public transportation considerations from the beginning of the design process. 9. Driveway Aprons and Curb Cuts. Minimize the number of driveway aprons and curb cuts to enhance the pedestrian environment and maintain vehicular, pedestrian, and bicycle capacity. See subsection 18.4.3.080.D Driveways and Turn-Around Design. 10. Access to Activity Centers. Provide convenient access to and from activity centers such as schools, commercial areas, parks, employment centers, and other major attractors. 11. Vista Terminations. Consider important sites at the end of streets and learn what civic buildings or public spaces may be needed for a particular area. The focus of vista terminations may include buildings, plazas, parks, or a notable view. New subdivision design should provide for vista termination in street layout. 12. Pavement Area. Minimize the pavement area of neighborhood streets, consistent with efforts to reduce street construction and maintenance costs, storm water runoff, and negative environmental impacts. Narrower streets also distinguish neighborhood streets from boulevards and avenues, and enhance neighborhood character. 13. Peak Run-Off. Where appropriate, use the local street system and its infrastructure to reduce peak storm water run-off into the city’s storm drain system and natural water systems downstream, and provide biological and mechanical treatment of storm water runoff. 14. Preservation of Natural Features. Design neighborhood streets to be responsive to physical features, and to avoid or minimize impacts to natural features and water-related resources. See subsections 18.4.6.040.E Connectivity Standards and 18.4.6.040.I Hillside Streets and Natural Areas. 15. Neighborhood Street Volumes. Design neighborhood streets to carry traffic volumes at low speeds. Neighborhood streets should function safely while reducing the need for extensive traffic regulations, control devices, and enforcement. 16. Cut-Through Traffic. The neighborhood street should be designed to reduce continuous cut-through, non-local traffic on neighborhood streets. 17. Street Trees. Plant street trees on neighborhood streets to buffer pedestrians and adjacent land uses from traffic, enhance street image and neighborhood character, calm motor vehicle traffic speeds, and enhance neighborhood identity or sense of place. Trees planted in the parkrow, along the sidewalk, or anywhere in the public right-of-way must be from the Ashland Recommended Street Tree Guide. 18. Street Lights. Install or relocate streetlights with street improvement projects. Use pedestrian scale and styles of poles that match the neighborhood. Spacing of light poles should be determined by the adjacent land uses. Place lighting at frequent intervals in busy retail and commercial areas, but lighting may be limited to intersections in residential areas. In some instances, building or fence-mounted lighting may replace the need for additional street lighting. Lighting elements should provide full-spectrum light so that colors at night are realistic. Install streetlights where they will not obstruct public ways, driveways, or walkways. Where a streetlight must be placed within a walkway, maintain an unobstructed pedestrian through zone per Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) compliance. Streetlights shall conform to City specifications. 19. Street Furniture. Street furniture includes pedestrian amenities such as benches, flower pots, sculptures, and other public art, low walls for sitting and drinking fountains. Provide benches in retail and commercial areas, along frequently used pedestrian corridors (i.e., routes over one-quarter of a mile to schools, parks, shopping, etc.), and at bus stops. Provide trash receptacles in pedestrian sitting areas. 20. Curbs. Use a standard, vertical six-inch high curb on improved streets. Rolled or mountable curbs should not be used because they do not create an effective safety barrier, channel storm water, or prevent automobiles from parking on the parkrow and sidewalk. The horizontal curb surface is not included in the parkrow or sidewalk width. 21. Transit Routes and Stops. Design streets identified as future transit routes to safely and efficiently accommodate transit vehicles. Transit stops should include amenities, such as but not limited to a bench, shelter from the elements, a posted schedule, bicycle parking, and water fountains. Such amenities encourage combination trips such as walking or bicycling to the bus stop and vice-versa at the destination. 22. Street Names. Street names shall meet the criteria and be processed in accordance with AMC 13.24. 23. Street Signs. Traffic control and sign placement shall be approved by the City. The cost of signs required for new development shall be the responsibility of the developer. Street name signs shall be installed at all street intersections. No-parking signs shall be consistent with the Street Design Standards in section 18.4.6.040 and the street design approved with the development by the approval authority. E. Connectivity Standards. New and reconstructed streets, alleys, and pathways shall conform to the following connectivity standards, and the Street Dedication Map. 1. Interconnection. Streets shall be interconnected to reduce travel distance, promote the use of alternative modes, provide for efficient provision of utilities and emergency services, and provide multiple travel routes. In certain situations where the physical features of the land create severe constraints, or natural features should be preserved, exceptions may be made. Such conditions may include, but are not limited to, topography, wetlands, mature trees, creeks, drainages, and rock outcroppings. See also, subsection 18.4.6.040.I Hillside Streets and Natural Areas. 2. Connectivity to Abutting Lands. Design streets to connect to existing, proposed, and planned streets adjacent to the development, unless prevented by environmental or topographical constraints or existing development patterns. Where the locations of planned streets are shown on the Street Dedication Map, the development shall implement the street(s) shown on the plan pursuant to chapter 18.4.6. Wherever a proposed development abuts vacant, redevelopable, or a future development phase, provide street stubs to allow access to logically extend the street system into the surrounding area. Provide turnarounds at street ends constructed to Uniform Fire Code standards, as the City deems applicable. Design street ends to facilitate future extension in terms of grading, width, and temporary barricades. 3. Efficient Land Use. Street layout shall permit and encourage efficient lot layout and attainment of planned densities. 4. Integration With Major Streets. Integrate neighborhood circulation systems and land development patterns with boulevards and avenues, which are designed to accommodate heavier traffic volumes. Locate and design streets to intersect as nearly as possible to a right angle. 5. Alleys. The use of the alley is recommended, where possible. Alleys can contribute positively to the form of the street and have many advantages including: alleys allow more positive streetscapes with front yards used for landscaping rather than for front yard driveways; alleys can create a positive neighborhood space where the sidewalk feels more safe and inviting for pedestrians, neighbors socializing, and children playing; when the garage is located in rear yards off the alley, interesting opportunities arise for creating inviting exterior rooms using the garage as a privacy wall and divider of space; alleys enhance the grid street network and provides midblock connections for non-motorists; alleys provide rear yard access and delivery; and provide alternative utility locations and service areas 6. Preserving Natural Features. Locate and design streets to preserve natural features to the greatest extent feasible. Whenever possible, street alignments shall follow natural contours and features so that visual and physical access to the natural feature is provided. Situate streets between natural features, such as creeks, mature trees, drainages, open spaces, and individual parcels in order to appropriately incorporate such significant neighborhood features. The City may approve adjustments to the street design standards in order to preserve natural features, per 18.4.6.040.I Hillside Streets and Natural Areas. 7. Physical Site Constraints. In certain situations where the physical features of the land create severe constraints adjustments may be made. Such conditions may include, but are not limited to, topography, wetlands, mature trees, creeks, drainages, and rock outcroppings. See 18.4.6.040.I Hillside Streets and Natural Areas. 8. Off-Street Connections. Connect off-street pathways to the street network and use to provide pedestrian and bicycle access in situations where a street is not feasible. In cases where a street is feasible, off-street pathways shall not be permitted in lieu of a traditional street with sidewalks. However, off-street pathways are permitted in addition to traditional streets with sidewalks in any situation. 9. Walkable Neighborhoods. Size neighborhoods in walkable increments, with block lengths meeting the following requirements. a. The layout of streets shall not create excessive travel lengths. Block lengths shall be a maximum of 300 to 400 feet and block perimeters shall be a maximum of 1,200 to 1,600 feet. b. An exception to the block length standard may be permitted when one or more of the following conditions exist. i. Physical conditions that preclude development of a public street. In certain situations where the physical features of the land create severe constraints, or natural features should be preserved, exceptions may be made. Such conditions may include, but are not limited to, topography, wetlands, mature trees, creeks, drainages, and rock outcroppings. See 18.4.6.040.I Hillside Streets and Natural Areas. ii. Buildings or other existing development on adjacent lands, including previously subdivided but vacant lots or parcels, preclude a connection now or in the future considering the potential for redevelopment. iii. Where an existing public street or streets terminating at the boundary of the development site have a block length exceeding 600 feet, or are situated such that the extension of the street(s) into the development site would create a block length exceeding 600 feet. In such cases, the block length shall be as close to 600 feet as practical. c. When block lengths exceed 400 feet, use the following measures to provide connections and route options for short trips. i. Where extreme conditions preclude street connections, continuous nonautomotive connection shall be provided with a multi-use path. Off-street pathways shall not be used in lieu of a traditional street with sidewalks in cases where extreme conditions do not exist. ii. Introduce a pocket park, or plaza area with the street diverted around it. iii. At the mid-block point, create a short median with trees or use other traffic calming devices to slow traffic, break up street lengths, and provide pedestrian refuge. 10. Traffic Calming. Traffic calming features, such as traffic circles, curb extensions, reduced street width (parking on one side), medians with pedestrian refuges, speed table, and or special paving may be required to slow traffic in areas with high pedestrian traffic. F. Design Standards. A description of street design standards for each street classification follows in Table 18.4.6.040.F and subsection 18.4.6.040.G. All elements listed are required unless specifically noted, and dimensions and ranges represent minimum standard or ranges for the improvements shown. The approval authority may require a dimension within a specified range based upon intensity of land use, existing and projected traffic and pedestrian volumes, or when supported through other applicable approval standards. The approval authority may approve dimensions and ranges greater than those proposed by an applicant. Table 18.4.6.040.F. City of Ashland Street Design Standards TYPE OF STREET AVERAGE DAILY TRIPS (ADT) RIGHT-OF-WAY WIDTH CURB-TO-CURB PAVEMENT WIDTH WITHIN CURB-TO-CURB AREA CURB onbothsides PARK-ROW on both sides SIDE-WALKS onbothsides MOTOR VEHICLE TRAVEL LANES MEDIAN AND/OR CENTER TURN LANE BIKE LANES onbothsides PARKING 2-Lane Boulevard 8,000 to 61'-87' 34' 11' none 6' 8'-9' 6" 5'-8' 1 6'-10' 2 3-Lane Boulevard 30,000 73'-99' 46' 11' 12' 6' 8'-9' 6" 5'-8' 1 6'-10' 2 5-Lane Boulevard 95'-121' 68' 11' 12' 6' 8'-9' 6" 5'-8' 1 6'-10' 2 2-Lane Avenue 3,000 to 59'-86' 32'-33' 10'-10.5' none 6' 8'-9' 6" 5'-8' 1 6'-10' 2 3-Lane Avenue 10,000 70.5'-97.5' 43.5'-44.5' 10'-10.5' 11.5' 6' 8'-9' 6" 5'-8' 1 6'-10' 2 Neighborhood Collector, Residential 1,500 to 5,000 NA NA 3 No Parking 49'-51' 22' 11' none 6" 8' 5'-6' Parking One Side 50'-56' 25'-27' 9'-10' 7' 6" 7'-8' 5'-6' Parking Both Sides 57'-63' 32'-34' 9'-10' 7' 6" 7'-8' 5'-6' Neighborhood Collector, Commercial Parallel Parking One Side 55'-65' 28' 10' 8' 6" 5'-8' 1 8'-10' 2 Parallel Parking Both Sides 63'-73' 36' 10' 8' 6" 5'-8' 1 8'-10' 2 Diagonal Parking One Side 65'-74' 37' 10' 17' 6" 5'-8' 1 8'-10' 2 Diagonal Parking Both Sides 81'-91' 54' 10' 17' 6" 5'-8' 1 8'-10' 2 Neighborhood Street less than 1,500 NA NA 3 Parking One Side 47'-51' 22' 15' Queuing 7' 6" 5'-8'1 5'-6' Neighborhood Street Parking Both Sides 50'-57' 25'-28' 11'-14' Queuing 7' 6" 5'-8'1 5'-6' Private Drive 4 Less than 100 15'-20' 12'-15' Queuing NA NA NA NA NA NA Shared Street Less than 1500 25' 18' paved 12' NA NA NA NA NA NA Alley NA 16' 12' paved width, 2' strips on both sides NA NA NA NA NA NA NA Multi-Use Path NA 12'-18' 6'-10' paved width, 2'-4' strips on both sides NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 17' – 8' landscape parkrow shall be installed in residential areas; 5' hardscape parkrow with tree wells shall be installed in commercial areas on streets with on-street parking lanes, or 7' landscape parkrow may be used in commercial areas on streets without on-street parking lanes or where the street corridor includes landscaped parkrow. Street Trees shall be planted in parkrows pursuant to 18.4.4.030. 26' sidewalk shall be installed in residential areas; 8'-10' sidewalk shall be installed in commercial areas; 10' sidewalk shall be required on boulevards in the Downtown Design Standards Zone. 3Bike lanes are generally not needed on streets with low volumes (less than 3,000 ADT) or low motor vehicle travel speeds (less than 25mph). For over 3,000 ADT or actual travel speeds exceeding 25 mph, 6' bike lanes; one on each side of the street moving in the same direction as motor vehicle traffic 4A private drive is a street in private ownership, not dedicated to the public, which serves three or less units. Private drives are permitted in the Performance Standards Options overlay. G. Standards Illustrated. New and reconstructed streets, alleys and pathways shall conform to the following design standards, as summarized in Table 18.4.6.040.F. 1. Boulevard. Boulevards are major thoroughfares filled with human and vehicular activity. Design should provide an environment where walking, bicycling, using transit, and driving are equally convenient and should facilitate the boulevard’s use as a public space. Design should start with the assumption that the busy nature of a boulevard is a positive factor and incorporate it to enhance the streetscape and setting. A two-lane, three-lane, or five-lane configuration can be used depending on the number of trips generated by surrounding existing and future land uses. See Figure 18.4.6.040.G.1. Figure 18.4.6.040.G.1. Three-Lane Boulevard Street Function Provide access to major urban activity centers and connections to regional traffic ways such as Interstate 5. Traffic without a destination in Ashland should be encouraged to use regional traffic ways and discouraged from using boulevards. Connectivity Connects neighborhoods to urban activity centers and to regional traffic ways such as Interstate 5. Average Daily Traffic 8,000 - 30,000 motor vehicle trips per day Managed Speed 25 mph – 35 mph Right-of-Way Width 2-lane 61 ft – 87 ft 3-lane 73 ft – 99 ft 5-lane 95 ft – 121 ft Curb-to-Curb Width 2-lane 34 ft 3-lane 46 ft 5-lane 68 ft Motor Vehicle Lanes 2-lane 11 ft travel lanes 3-lane 11 ft travel lanes; one 12 ft median or center-turn lane 5-lane 11 ft travel lanes; one 12 ft median or center-turn lane Bike Lanes 6 ft bike lanes; one on each side of the street moving in the same direction as motor vehicle traffic Parking 8 ft – 9 ft lanes; parking may be provided in 8 ft – 9 ft bays rather than as a continuous on-street lane Curb and Gutter required; 6 inch vertical curb Parkrow Residential 7 ft -8 ft landscape parkrow; 8 ft on streets without on-street parking lanes Commercial 5 ft hardscape parkrow (i.e., street tree wells) on streets with on-street parking lanes 7 ft landscape parkrow on streets without on-street parking lanes or where street corridor includes landscape parkrow All plant street trees pursuant to section 18.4.4.030 Sidewalk Residential 6 ft on both sides Commercial 8 ft – 10 ft on both sides 10 ft sidewalk required on boulevards in Downtown Design Standards Zone 2. Avenue. Avenues provide concentrated pedestrian, bicycle, transit, and motor vehicle access from neighborhoods to neighborhood activity centers and boulevards. Avenues are similar to boulevards, but are designed on a smaller scale. Design should provide an environment where walking, bicycling, using transit, and driving are equally convenient and facilitates the avenue’s use as a public space. A two-lane or three-lane configuration can be used depending on the number of trips generated by surrounding existing and future land uses. See Figure 18.4.6.040.G.2. Figure 18.4.6.040.G.2. Three-Lane Avenue Street Function Provide access from neighborhoods to neighborhood activity centers and boulevards. Connectivity Connects neighborhoods to neighborhood activity centers and boulevards. Average Daily Traffic 3,000 - 10,000 motor vehicle trips per day Managed Speed 20 mph – 25 mph Right-of-Way Width 2-lane 59 ft – 86 ft 3-lane 70.5 ft – 97.5 ft Curb-to-Curb Width 2-lane 32 ft– 33 ft 3-lane 43.5 ft – 44.5 ft Motor Vehicle Lanes 2-lane 10 ft – 10.5 ft travel lanes 3-lane 10 ft – 10.5 ft travel lanes; one 11.5 ft median or center-turn lane Bike Lanes 6 ft bike lanes; one on each side of the street moving in the same direction as motor vehicle traffic Parking 8 ft – 9 ft lanes; may be provided in 8 ft – 9 ft bays rather than as a continuous on-street lane Curb and Gutter required; 6 inch vertical curb Parkrow Residential 7 ft - 8 ft landscape parkrow; 8 ft on streets without on-street parking lanes Commercial 5 ft hardscape parkrow (i.e., street tree wells) on streets with on-street parking lanes 7ft landscape parkrow on streets without on-street parking lanes or where street corridor includes landscape parkrow All plant street trees pursuant to section 18.4.4.030 Sidewalk Residential 6 ft on both sides Commercial 8 ft – 10 ft on both sides 3. Neighborhood Collector. Neighborhood Collectors provide access to neighborhood cores and gather traffic from various parts of the neighborhood and distribute it to the major street system. Different configurations with several on-street parking options are provided for residential zones as illustrated in Figures 18.4.6.040.G.3.a, 18.4.6.040.G.3.b, and 18.4.6.040.G.3.c, and for commercial and employment zones as illustrated in 18.4.6.040.G.3.d, 18.4.6.040.G.3.e, 18.4.6.040.G.3.f, and 18.4.6.040.G.3.g. Figure 18.4.6.040.G.3.a. Residential Neighborhood Collector, No Parking Street Function Provide access to neighborhoods, shopping, and services. Connectivity Residential Collects traffic within residential areas and connects neighborhoods with the major street network. Commercial Collects traffic within residential areas and connects neighborhoods with major street network. Provides neighborhood shopping opportunities. Average Daily Traffic 1,500 to 5,000 motor vehicle trips per day Managed Speed 15mph – 20 mph Right-of-Way Width Residential no parking 49 ft – 51 ft parking one side 50 ft – 56 ft parking both sides 57 ft – 63 ft Commercial parallel parking one side 55 ft – 65 ft parallel parking both sides 63 ft – 73 ft diagonal parking one side 65 ft – 74 ft diagonal parking both sides 81 ft – 91 ft Curb-to-Curb Width Residential no parking 22 ft parking one side 25 ft – 27 ft parking both sides 32 ft – 34 ft Commercial parallel parking one side 28 ft parallel parking both sides 36 ft diagonal parking one side 37 ft diagonal parking both sides 54 ft Motor Vehicle Lanes Residential no on-street parking 11 ft travel lanes parking one/both sides 9 ft-10 ft travel lanes Commercial 10 ft travel lanes Bike Lanes generally not needed on streets with low volumes (less than 3,000 ADT) or low motor vehicle travel speeds (less than 25 mph) for over 3,000 ADT or actual travel speeds exceeding 25 mph, 6 ft bike lanes; one on each side of the street moving in the same direction as motor vehicle traffic Parking Residential 7 ft lanes Commercial parallel parking 8 ft lanes diagonal parking 17 ft lanes Curb and Gutter required: 6 inch vertical curb Parkrow Residential 7 ft – 8 ft landscape parkrow; 8 ft on streets without on-street parking lanes Commercial 5 ft hardscape parkrow (i.e., street tree wells) on streets with on-street parking lanes 7 ft landscape parkrow on streets without on-street parking lanes or where street corridor includes landscape parkrow all plant street trees pursuant to section 18.4.4.030 Sidewalk Residential 5 ft – 6 ft on both sides; use 6 ft in high pedestrian volume areas with frequent two-way foot traffic Commercial 8 ft – 10 ft on both sides Figure 18.4.6.040.G.3.b. Residential Neighborhood Collector, Parking One Side Figure 18.4.6.040.G.3.c. Residential Neighborhood Collector, Parking Both Sides Figure 18.4.6.040.G.3.d. Commercial Neighborhood Collector, Parallel Parking One Side Figure 18.4.6.040.G.3.e. Commercial Neighborhood Collector, Parallel Parking Both Sides Figure 18.4.6.040.G.3.f. Commercial Neighborhood Collector, Angled Parking One Side Figure 18.4.6.040.G.3.g. Commercial Neighborhood Collector, Angled Parking Both Sides 4. Neighborhood Street. Neighborhood Streets provide access to individual residential units and neighborhood commercial areas. Different configurations with several on-street parking options are provided for residential and commercial zones as illustrated in Figures 18.4.6.040.G.4.a and 18.4.6.040.G.4.b. Neighborhood Streets are for use in the following single-family residential zones: WR (Woodland Residential), RR - 1 and RR - .5 (Low Density Residential), and R-1-3.5, R-1-5, R-1-7.5 and R-1-10 (Single-Family Residential), unless specifically noted. Figure 18.4.6.040.G.4.a. Neighborhood Street, Parking Both Sides Street Function Provide access to individual residential units and commercial areas. Connectivity Connects to higher order streets. Average Daily Traffic less than 1,500 motor vehicle trips per day Managed Speed 10 mph - 20 mph Right-of-Way Width parking one side 47 ft - 51 ft parking both sides 50 ft - 57 ft Curb-to-Curb Width parking one side 22 ft parking both sides 25 ft - 28 ft Motor Vehicle Lanes parking one side 15 ft queuing lane parking both sides in R-1-10, R-1-7.5 and R-1-5 zones 11 ft queuing lane parking both sides in R-1-3.5, R-2 and R-3 zones 14 ft queuing lane Bike Lanes generally not needed on streets with low volumes (less than 3,000 ADT) or low motor vehicle travel speeds (less than 25 mph) Parking 7 ft lanes; may be provided in 7 ft bays rather than as a continuous on-street lane Curb and Gutter required, 6" vertical curb Parkrow Residential 7 ft-8 ft landscape parkrow; 8 ft on streets without on-street parking lanes Commercial 5 ft hardscape parkrow (i.e., street tree wells) on streets with on-street parking lanes 7 ft landscape parkrow on streets without on-street parking lanes or where street corridor includes landscape parkrow All plant street trees pursuant to section 18.4.4.030 Sidewalk 5 ft-6 ft on both sides; use 6 ft in high pedestrian volume areas with frequent two-way foot traffic Figure 18.4.6.040.G.4.b. Neighborhood Street, Parking One Sides 5. Private Drive. A private drive is a road in private ownership, not dedicated to the public that serves three or less lots. Private drives are limited to development approved using the Performance Standards Option pursuant to chapter 18.3.9. Street Function Provide access to individual residential units. Connectivity Connects to higher order streets. Average Daily Traffic 100 or less motor vehicle trips per day Managed Speed 10 mph - 20 mph Dedicated Width for 2 – 3 lots 20 ft for 1 lot 15 ft Drive Width for 2 – 3 lots 15 ft for 1 lot 12 ft Fire Lane Private drives and work areas shall be deemed fire lanes and subject to all requirements thereof. Fire Work Areas: Private drives serving structures greater than 24' in height, as defined in part 18.6, shall provide a Fire Work Area of 20 ft by 40 ft within 50 ft of the structure. The Fire Work Area requirement shall be waived if the structure served by the drive has an approved automatic sprinkler system installed. Fire Truck Turnarounds: When required by the Oregon Fire Code, private drives greater than 150 feet in length shall provide a turnaround as illustrated in Figure 18.4.6.040.G.5. The Staff Advisor, in coordination with the Fire Code Official, may extend the distance of the turnaround requirement up to a maximum of 250 feet in length as allowed by Oregon Fire Code access exemptions. Other curbs, bike lanes, parkrows and sidewalks not required Figure 18.4.6.040.G.5. Fire Truck Turnaround 6. Alley. Alleys are semi-public neighborhood spaces that provide access to the rear or side of properties, and alternative utility placement areas. Alleys eliminate the need for front yard driveways providing the opportunity for a more positive front yard streetscape, allowing the street located adjacent to the front of properties to be designed using a narrow width with limited on-street parking, and creating the opportunity for the use of narrower lots to increase residential densities. Alleys are appropriate in all residential areas and some commercial areas for business frontage. Figure 18.4.6.040.G.6. Alley Street Function Provide rear and side yard access to residential and commercial properties, and an alternative utility placement area. Connectivity Connects to all types of streets. Managed Speed motor vehicle travel speeds should be below 10 mph Right-of-Way Width 16 ft Improvement Width 12 ft paved with 2 ft gravel or planted strips on both sides Curb and Gutter curb not required, use inverse crown 7. Multi-use Path. Multi-use paths are off-street facilities used primarily for walking and bicycling. These paths can be relatively short connections between neighborhoods, or longer paths adjacent to rivers, creeks, railroad tracks, and open space. See Figure 18.4.6.040.G.7. Figure 18.4.6.040.G.7. Multi-Use Path Street Function Provide short connections for pedestrians and bicyclists between destinations, and longer paths in situations where a similar route is not provided on the street network. Connectivity Enhances route options and shorten distances traveled for pedestrians and bicyclists. Right-of-Way Width 10 ft – 18 ft Improvement Width 6 ft – 10 ft paved with 2 ft – 4 ft gravel or planted strips on both sides Curb and Gutter not required 8. Shared Street. Provides access to residential uses in an area in which right-of-way is constrained by natural features, topography or historically significant structures. Shared Streets may additionally be used in circumstances where a slower speed street, collectively shared by pedestrians, bicycles, and autos, is a functional and preferred design alternative. The design of the street should emphasize a slower speed environment and provide clear physical and visual indications the space is shared across modes. See Figure 18.4.6.040.G.8. Prototypical Section: Shared Street Figure 18.4.6.040.G.8. Shared Street Street Function: Provide vehicular, pedestrian, and bicycle neighborhood circulation and access to individual residential and commercial properties designed to encourage socializing with neighbors, outdoor play for children, and creating comfortable spaces for walking and biking. Connectivity: Connects to all types of streets. Average Daily Traffic: 1,500 or less motor vehicle trips per day. Managed Speed: Motor vehicle travel speeds should be below 15 mph. Right-of-Way Width: 25' Pavement width: 18' minimum, maintaining full fire truck access and minimum turning paths at all changes in alignment and intersections. Motor Vehicle Travel Lanes: Minimum 12' clear width. Bike Lanes: Not applicable. Bicyclists can share the travel lane and easily negotiate these low use areas. Parking: Parking and loading areas may be provided within the right of way with careful consideration to ensure parked vehicles do not obstruct pedestrian, bicycles, or emergency vehicle access. Parkrow: Not applicable. Sidewalks: Not applicable. Pedestrians can share the travel lane and easily negotiate these low use areas. Refuge areas are to be provided within the right of way to allow pedestrians to step out of the travel lane when necessary. H. Crosswalk and Street Corner Radius. Provide pedestrians with the shortest possible route across street intersections. This is accomplished by using small curb radii and curb extensions as illustrated in Figure 18.4.6.040.H. At the street corner, where one curbed street meets another is known as the curb return. The measure of the sharpness of the corner, or curb return is known as the curb return radius (Crr). Figure 18.4.6.040.H. Street Corner Radius and Crossing Distance 1. Pedestrian Crossing Distance. With a larger Crr, turning movements of right-turning vehicles are easier and possible at faster speeds, but the length of the crosswalk needed to cross the street for pedestrians at that point is also increased. As the Crr increases, the distance the pedestrian must cross increases, and the time it takes for the pedestrian to cross the intersection increases. Higher turning vehicular speeds are encouraged and dangerous rolling stops become more frequent. Table 18.4.6.040.H.1 exemplifies the effect on intersection crossings as Crr increases from 15 feet to 35 feet. Table 18.4.6.040.H.1. Effect on Pedestrian Crossing of Curb Radius SIDEWALK WIDTH 6' 6' 6' 8' 8' 8' 10' 10' 10' 10' PARKROW WIDTH 6' 6' 6' 6' 6' 6' 6' 6' 6' 6' CURB RETURN RADIUS 15' 25' 30' 15' 25' 30' 15' 25' 30' 35' CROSSING DISTANCE ADDED TO STREET WIDTH 2.5' 11.6' 17.2' 1.7' 10.0' 15.3' 1.1' 8.6' 13.6' 19.0' CROSSING TIME ADDED WITH ADDITIONAL STREET WIDTH (SECONDS) 0.7 3.3 4.9 0.5 2.9 4.4 0.3 2.5 3.9 5.4 Source: Traditional Neighborhood Development Street Design Guidelines, Institute of Transportation Engineers 2. Crosswalk and Curb Return Radius Approval Standards. New and reconstructed crosswalks and corners shall conform to the following Crr standards. See also, requirements for vision clearance area in section 18.2.4.040. a. Base Crr on reasonable anticipated vehicular and pedestrian traffic volumes, traffic types, and intersection control devices. b. Use ten to 15 feet Crr in neighborhoods, excluding intersections involving boulevards. c. When designing Crr, allow for large vehicles to swing across the centerline of the street pursuant to AASHTO standards. d. Begin on-street parking a minimum of 20 feet from any intersection involving boulevards and avenues to provide clear vision for pedestrians, bicyclists, and drivers. This setback will also assist larger vehicles to turn. e. At intersections with Crr 15 feet or larger and high pedestrian traffic volumes, use paver bulb outs, textured crossings, and other appropriate traffic calming treatments to facilitate pedestrian travel. f. Match the Crr of newly constructed or reconstructed street corners in the Historic District overlay to what historically has been used in the remainder of the Historic District overlay. I. Hillside Streets and Natural Areas. Streets constructed in hillside lands or natural resource areas (e.g., creeks, rock outcroppings, drainages, wetlands) should minimize negative impacts and use minimal cut and fill slopes. Generally, the range of street types provided in 18.4.6.040.G make it possible to construct or improve streets in accordance with the design standards. However, street design may be adjusted in hillside lands and natural resource areas using the Exceptions to Street Standards process in 18.4.6.020.B.1. In addition to the approval criteria for an Exception to Street Standards, the following standards must be met. 1. Approval of Streets in Hillside Lands and Natural Areas. Approval of a street in a hillside lands or natural areas shall conform to chapter 18.3.10, Physical and Environmental Constraints, and the following provisions. a. Clear Travel Lane. New streets shall provide a 20-foot clear travel lane area in areas designated Hillside Lands. b. On-Street Parking. Ample on-street or bay parking shall be provided at the foot of steep hills, especially those prone to snow or ice buildup. c. Streets shall be located in a manner that preserves natural features to the greatest extent feasible. e. Whenever possible, street alignments shall follow natural contours and features so that visual and physical access to the natural feature is possible. f. Streets shall be situated between natural features, such as creeks, mature trees, drainages, open spaces, and individual parcels in order to appropriately incorporate such significant neighborhood features. 2. Dead End Streets. Dead-end streets may be permitted in areas where topography, wetland, creeks, or other physical features preclude street connections. Only neighborhood streets may be dead end roads. No dead end street shall exceed 500 feet in length, not including the turnaround. J. Publicly-Funded Street Improvements. Streets built or improved using a local improvement district (LID), or other public or grant funds may occur in areas constrained by the built environment or natural features, and as a result, are allowed exceptions to the street design standards. Street design may be adjusted for publicly-funded projects pursuant to the Exceptions to Street Standards process in subsection 18.4.6.020.B.1. In addition to the approval criteria for an Exception to Street Standards, the following requirements must be met. See also, subsection 18.4.6.050.C Nonconformities Created by Street Dedication. 1. Curb-to-Curb Width. Street improvements constructed through a publicly-funded project shall be permitted to reduce the required curb-to-curb width required in section 18.4.6.040.G to preserve significant natural features, to accommodate existing structures and to ensure compatibility with the surrounding neighborhood. A reduction in the required curb-to-curb width shall require the approval of the City Planning, Engineering, Police, and Fire departments. 2. Retrofitting Existing Streets With Sidewalks and Parkrows. Street design adjustments could result in construction of meandering sidewalks, sidewalks on one rather than both sides of the street, or curbside sidewalk segments instead of setback walkways. In some cases, sidewalks may replace pavement (i.e., on top of existing pavement) on streets with wider curb-to-curb widths than is currently required. Building sidewalks and/or parkrows in place of existing pavement is generally limited to situations where a sidewalk and/or parkrow will be continuous along the entire side of the street. 3. Preserving Natural Features. Streets shall be located in a manner that preserves natural features to the greatest extent feasible, pursuant to 18.4.6.040.I. K. Ashland Street Corridor. 1. Purpose and Intent. The Ashland Street Corridor is located between the intersection of Siskiyou Boulevard to the west and the Interstate 5 interchange to the east. In general, the area boundary includes the lots fronting the Highway 66 right-of-way. This main boulevard street is comprised of Ashland Street, Greensprings Highway, and Highway 66. Presently, varieties of land uses (e.g., retail/commercial, employment, institutional, and residential) as well as a collage of building types and vacant lands are located along this corridor. This boulevard is an important transportation element because it is one of the three entrances to Ashland, it links the downtown with hotel accommodations and the airport, and it is a commercial and retail center, primarily for local residents. In addition, the land within and adjacent to the corridor, both commercial and residential, is for the most part underdeveloped or undeveloped. Much of the future economic growth of the City will probably be centered in this location. The City Council and Planning Commission have recognized the potential of the corridor and requested special design studies be performed to insure its planned development. During those studies it was determined that the image of the corridor portrays a typical “strip development”. These types of development are in the fringe areas of towns throughout the United States. Vast areas or asphalt paving, minimal landscaping, and uninspired architecture are indicative of these strip developments, resulting in large part to the dominance of the automobile as the only form of transit. In Ashland, a town noted for its charm, natural beauty, and culture, this type of development is a contradiction. The corridor does however offer opportunities such as views to the mountains and foothills, landscaped open space, and large lots. Recognizing these opportunities, the City desires to develop this area according to standards which will create an environment reflective of Ashland’s community image. A key factor in achieving this goal is to reduce the auto-orientation of this environment by encouraging pedestrian amenities and urban design strategies, thereby instilling a sense of community pride in the property owners and merchants of this area. The Ashland Street Corridor design standards listed below will provide the City with direction for the future development of this key commercial and retail corridor. It is important to note that this work must be a cooperative effort between the private and public sectors of the community. In concert with the design standards for the private development of the corridor, the design standards for the public right-of-way are intended to provide an attractive street environment which will encourage pedestrian usage and public safety. 2. Design Standards. Improvements in the Ashland Street right-of-way shall meet the following standards. 1. Landscape Median. a. Twelve-foot wide minimum with left turn pockets in limited but appropriate locations, approximately every 400 feet. b. Small flowering trees, low water use, and low maintenance shrubs (i.e., 12-foot spread maximum) and ground cover shall be planted. c. Lighting shall be to City street light standards. 2. Sidewalk. a. A five to eight-foot wide minimum area for street tree placement is required (e.g., five feet wide for street tree wells, seven to eight feet wide for parkrows). b. Trees shall be drought tolerant and hardy, placed with root barriers and tree grates to City specifications, or in landscaped strips with ground cover. c. Six to ten-foot wide textured or scored concrete sidewalk in addition to the street tree area (total widths would be a minimum of eight feet). d. Pedestrian scaled light fixtures placed in the street tree strip. e. Specially designed street name signs. 3. Special Pedestrian Areas. a. Pedestrian refuges protected from weather shall be placed near transit stops or at intervals of 400 feet in the corridor if no transit stop is nearby. b. Textured concrete or unit masonry paving shall be used in these areas to differentiate them from other areas. c. Street furniture (e.g., benches, drinking fountains, new racks,) shall be included for the comfort and convenience of the pedestrian.